Quake-induced transient dynamics of a granular pile

Authors: P Mutabaruka, J-Y Delenne, F Radjai, K Soga
Simulations by P Mutabaruka
Method: Contact Dynamics + Multiple Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann

The initial static pile is set into motion by applying a horizontal velocity to all particles during a short interval of time. In the following simulations we gradually apply 3 levels of input energy for different velocity fields.
1) The same velocity applied to all particles
2) The same velocity applied to a column of particles adjacent to the left wall
3) a constant velocity gradient is applied
Note that the first two pushing modes mimic the case of a pile impacted from the left by a moving mass (tsunami, debris...) whereas the last mode represents energy transfer by horizontal quake of the bottom line.