Liquid clustering and capillary cohesion in wet granular media

Capillary condensation from saturated vapor inside a 2D packing simulated by multiphase LBM:

Continuous capillary condensation vapor injected into the pore space:

Liquid clustering during capillary condensation. Color codes represent liquid volumes:

Wetting of a single grain during capillary condensation:

Evolution of the largest liquid cluster during capillary condensation: